Aporte Teórico

La Lógica Infantil

Muchas veces los grandes, frente a respuestas o situaciones de los pequeños, solemos decir "son cosas de chicos", o "es la inocencia de la infancia", cuando en realidad la lógica infantil suele superar la credibilidad de los adultos. Para que comprendamos mejor lo que deseo significar presentaremos algunos ejemplos reales que me constan:

Caso 1:

El abuelo fue a casa de Valentín, su nieto, de cuatro años. El padre le dijo al niño: "mostrale al abuelo lo que hiciste en la revista de actividades". El nieto trae la revista y muestra una serie de cuentas de sumar que luego tenía que vincular con resultados posibles. El abuelo pregunta "¿lo hiciste solito?". El niño dice si. El abuelo no pregunta la estrategia utilizada y dice: "muy bien Valentín, si tuvieses libreta de calificaciones te pondría un 10, pero como no tenés te voy a dar estos dos pesos". El niño toma el dinero y se lo guarda. El padre le dice : "mirá que el abuelo te dio esa plata porque lo hiciste con la cabeza". El niño acota: "CON LA CABEZA NO SE HACE, SE HACE CON EL CEREBRO".

Caso 2:

El maestro, con toda su ilusión, dicta el siguiente problema: "Fui a comprar dos kilos de papas y me costaron 4 pesos. ¿Cuántos kilos de papas podré comprar con 20 pesos?". Los niños iniciaron la búsqueda de la respuesta, menos uno de ellos, Carolina, que mientras los demás se esforzaban ella miraba a todos como diciendo ¿qué hacen?, claro, al momento de responder dijo: "DEPENDE, SI FUE EL MISMO DÍA Y AL MISMO LUGAR".

Caso 3:

La maestra en una salita de Jardín pregunta a los niños: "tiene plumas y pone huevos, ¿qué es?", Lautaro contesta "una gallina", y Juana dice "no, un avestruz", la maestra acota : "si, podría ser". Lautaro, dolido, piensa unos segundos y argumenta: "PERO TENDRÍAS QUE AGREGAR QUE TIENE CRESTA, ASÍ SEGURO QUE ES UNA GALLINA".

Caso 4:

La abuela hablaba por teléfono con su nietito de 3 años. En la conversación telefónica ella le pregunta ¿Qué estás haciendo? Y el niño, sin dudar un segundo, responde: "HABLANDO CON VOS POR TELÉFONO".

La lógica infantil tiene un fuerte paralelismo con la lógica bivaluada. Para los niños las cosas son o no son, es si o es no, es posible o imposible, es decir, como la lógica Booleana, es verdadero o falso, es uno o cero, la corriente pasa o no pasa. Por lo tanto el razonamiento infantil supera toda expectativa adulta porque sigue los paso de la lógica bivaluada. Consideremos que un razonamiento es una serie de premisas enlazadas por un condicional que si la partida, primera premisa o antecedente, es verdadera todas las demás deben serlo para que el razonamiento sea correcto y la conclusión, consecuentemente, verdadera. ¡No es eso lo que han hecho cada uno de estos niños!

  1. La cabeza es el continente pero el que piensa es el contenido que llamamos cerebro.

  2. Lo que Carolina plantea nos pasa a diario. Hay diferencia de precios en días y lugares distintos.

  3. Es lógico que para obtener respuesta única hay que dar precisiones a los datos.

  4. El hacer es instantáneo, es ahora y aquí, y el niño hablaba por teléfono con su abuela.

Podemos estar o no de acuerdo en lo que estoy planteando pero si coincidimos tendríamos que preguntarnos entonces: ¿en qué momento los niños pierden esacapacidad de procesar lógicamente sus pensamientos? Hay, a mi entender, varias
respuestas, algunos de las cuales pueden ser:

  1. La sociedad, frente a sus ambiciones y egocentrismos, hace que perdamos el sentido común.

  2. Los niños no especulan con las respuestas, cosa que por el deseo de éxito de los adultos, hacemos perder a medida que se va creciendo.

  3. La escuela primaria, y más aún la secundaria, tiende a igualar a todos en todo, hasta en el modo de pensar que, generalmente, está muy unido al pensamiento del docente que, a su vez, piensa según los libros y los programas le indican.

  4. Las malas correcciones basadas en el NO rotundo y muy alejada del descubrimiento racional del error hacen que no fluyan con facilidad respuestas como las que vimos en los ejemplos.

Pero, coincidamos o no, les sugiero intentemos dar más libertad a los niños para que crezcan con ese razonamiento lógico tal como la teoría bivaluable nos indica: "premisa verdadera, más premisa verdadera, más premisa verdadera,………………,conclusión seguramente verdadera" y veremos los resultados. Porque en la vida social en general y escolar en particular debemos tomar decisiones y una muy importante es desarrollar el proceso del pensamiento racional que nos permitirá ser más libres e independiente como ciudadanos para finalmente ser más libre e independiente como sociedad organizada.

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